כָּבַש

כָּבַש
כָּבַש(b. h.; cmp. כָּבַס) 1) to press, squeeze. Ohol. VIII, 5 כ׳ את האבןוכ׳ if one pressed a stone on (weighted) the sheet. Bets.23b שהיא כּוֹבֶשֶׂת because it (the wagon) presses (the ground) down. Sabb.XX, 5 לא כוֹבְשִׁין you must not screw down, v. מַכְבֵּש; a. fr.Part. pass. כָּביּש, f. כְּבוּשָׁה pressed, compressed; pressing. Ib. 135a; Tosef. ib. XV (XVI), 9; a. e. ערלה כ׳ היא the foreskin (which seems to be wanting) is pressed (to the membrum). Tosef.Ohol.IX, 4 כאילו אבנים כְּבוּשוֹתוכ׳ as if stones were placed tightly upon them. Ex. R. s. 15 ההר … כְּבוּשִׁין עלוכ׳ a mountain on each side pressing upon (preventing the run of) the springs; a. fr. 2) כ׳ פנים (בקרקע) to press the face into the ground, to hide ones self in fear or shame. Snh.19b כָּבְשוּ פניהם בקרקע they cast their looks down (were afraid to give an opinion). Y. ib. X, 27d (ref. to Is. 7:3) א״ת כובס אלא כּוֹבֵש שהיה כובש פניווכ׳ read not kobes, but kobesh, for he hid his face and fled before him; (Bab. ib. 104a דכבשינהו לאפי Chald.). 3) to press vegetables, meat ; to preserve, pickle. Toh. II, 1 האשה … כּוֹבֶשֶׁתוכ׳ if a woman was pressing vegetables in a pot. Ukts. II, 1 זתים שכְּבָשָׂןוכ׳ olives which one pressed with their leaves; a. fr.Part. pass. כָּביּש preserved substance, pickle. Ḥull97b, a. fr. כ׳ הרי הוא כמבושל preserved substances are in ritual law like cooked.Pl. כְּבוּשִׁין. Pes.II, 6. Y.Sabb.I, 3c bot. כְּבוּשֵׁיהֶן preserves made by gentiles; a. fr. 4) Trnsf. to store, hide. Ḥag.13a (ref. to Prov. 27:26) א״ת כבשים אלא כְּברּשִׁים Ms. M. (missing in ed.; v. Rabb. D. S. a. l. note) read not Kbasim (sheep) but Kbushim (hidden things), v. כִּבְשָׁן; Yalk. Prov. 961.Sot.10b; Macc.23b (ref. to Gen. 38:25) יצאת … ממני יצאו כבושים a divine voice went forth and said, ‘from me went forth the secret things (I declare that Judah is the father of Tamars children; Ar.: ממני היו הדברים כ׳, v. Rabb. D. S. a. l. note 6); Yalk. Gen. 145; Yalk. 1 Sam. 112. 5) to detain (cmp. עצר). Pesik. Bayom, p. 193b>; כָּבְשָׁה אותם מטרונאוכ׳ the matron detained them one day longer; כבשה אותן התורחוכ׳ the Law detained them one day longer (before the Lord); ib. 195a>, sq.; Pesik. R. suppl., s. 4. Gen. R. s. 8, end האיש כּיֹבֵשוכ׳ the man detains his wife from going out; a. e. 6) to suppress, restrain, conquer. Snh.XI, 5 (89a) הכּוֹבֵש את נבואתו (a prophet) who suppresses his prophecy (being afraid to proclaim it). Ab. IV, 1 הכיבש את יצרו who conquers his passion. Lam. R. to V, 1 כובש את הגדול (not כביש), v. זַרְזִיר I. Y.Succ.V, 55b top עד שאתה מְכַבֵּש … בוא וכְבוֹשוכ׳ instead of conquering the barbarians, come and subdue the Jews; Lam. R. to I, 16; ib. to IV, 19. Ex. R. s. 25 הוא כוֹבְשוֹוכ׳ he suppresses (withholds the evidence) and does not produce it.כ׳ עון to suppress guilt, to forgive, cause forgiveness. Pesik. Eth Korb, p. 61b>; Pesik. R. s. 16, v. כֶּבֶש; a. fr.7) to violate. Esth. R. to VII, 7 (read:) הרי הוא כּוֹבְשֵׁנִיוכ׳ behold, he is attacking me in thy presence.8) to pave, grade a road.Part. pass. כָּבוּש, f. כְּבוּשָׁה. Tanḥ. Ḥuck. 20 דרך כ׳ graded road; ib. ed. Bub. 47; Yalk. Num. 764. (Pirké dR. El. ch. 52 כובשים במזלות, read with Yalk. Josh. 22: חושבים; Yalk. Gen. 77 רוגשים. Pi. כִּיבֵּש 1) to press, squeeze.Part. pass. מְכוּבָּש, pl. מְכוּבָּשִׁים. Tosef.Mikv.VI (VII), 17 לכלוכי צואה … המ׳ (ed. Zuck. והמכושים, corr. acc.) secretory substances … which are compressed, i. e. dried up by being sat upon. 2) (cmp. סָלַל II) to press down, make even, grade. Bets.IV, 5 מְכַבְּשִׁין you may press the ashes down (make a graded surface for baking); a. e.Trnsf. to level, make plain. Cant. R. to I, 2 (play on כבשים, Prov. 28:26, v. כֶּבֶש) כְּבָשִׁים … תהי׳ מְכַבֵּש לפניהםוכ׳ it may be read Kbashim (grades), as long as thy pupils are young, make the words of the Law plain before them; when they are older reveal to them the secrets (reasons) of the Law; Yalk. ib. 985 הֱיֵה כוֹבֵש לפניהם (another expl., v. infra).כ׳ את הריחיים (to carve steps for the grain, to put the millstones in working order. M. Kat. I, 9; expl. ib. 10a to sharpen the millstones (v. נָקַר I), (oth. opin.) to cut the hole out for the hopper. 3) (interch. with Kal) to conquer, defeat. Y.Peah VII, 20c top שבע שכִּיבְּשוּ seven years during which they were engaged in conquering the land; Ḥull.17a שכבשו. Sifré Deut. 51 לכַבֵּשח״ל עד שלא יְכַבְּשוּוכ׳ to conquer foreign land before they shall have conquered Palestine. Pes.5b נכרי שכִּיבַּשְׁתּוֹ a gentile who is in thy power. Yeb.65b (ref. to וכבשח, Gen. 1:28) איש דרכו לכַבֵּשוכ׳ it is man who conquers (the earth) but not woman; Kidd.35a; a. fr. 4) to suppress, withhold. Cant. R. l. c. תהי׳ מכבש לפניהםוכ׳ withhold from them, i. e. teach them merely the words of the Law without arguments; (another expl., v. supra). 5) (denom. of כֶּבֶש) to storm, climb over. Tosef.Sot.VI, 6 מכבש את הגנותוכ׳ climbing over the garden fences and violating the women; Gen. R. s. 53; Yalk. Gen. 94 מַכְבִּיש Hif. Nif. נִכְבַּש 1) to be pressed down, suppressed. Pesik. Eth. Korb. p. 61b> כל דבר שהוא נ׳ סופו לצוף whatever is pressed down, is liable to come to the surface again; Pesik. R. s. 16. 2) to be submissive. Midr. Till. to Ps. 30, end when scholars sit down ונִכְבָּשִׁין אלו לאלו and are submissive (respectful) to one another; (Sabb.63a ונוחין). 3) to have surreptitious intercourse. Sifra Emor, Par. 6, ch. V נ׳ עם; Yeb.VII, 5 to נ׳ על. Hif. הִכְכִּיש to climb, v. supra. Hithpa. הִתְכַּבֵּש, Nithpa. נִתְכַּבֵּש to be conquered, be taken. Y.Shebi.VI, 36c bot. כמי שנִתְכַּבְּשוּ they are to be treated as if they had been subdued (in the days of Joshua). Ib. שמא נִתְכַּבְּשָׁהמד״ת perhaps it was to be taken by the command of the Law; Y. Yeb.VII, 8a bot. (corr. acc.). Ex. R. s. 18 עכשיו … מִתְכַּבֶּשֶׁת בידו just now Jerusalem may be taken by him (Sennacherib). (Pesik. Zutr., Ekeb, ed. Bub. p. 30 מתכבשים, מתכבשות, v. כָּתַש.

Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature. . 1903.

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